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Secure Java Coding Best Practices

Making your web application flawless against security attacks is a challenge for every java developer. In this article I will briefly describe common practical development techniques that can help you to achieve it.

OWASP Top 10, a list of the 10 Most Critical Web Application Security Risks, includes following risks:

  • A1 - Injection
  • A2 - Broken Authentication & Session Management
  • A3 - Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
  • A4 - Insecure Direct Object References
  • A5 - Security Misconfiguration
  • A6 - Sensitive Data Exposure
  • A7 - Missing Function Level Access Control
  • A8 - Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)
  • A9 - Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities
  • A10 - Unvalidated Redirects and Forwards

In this article I will highlight most important java coding techniques for building secure web applications.

Use SQL Prepared Statements (A1) #

Bind user data to request parameters of the PreparedStatement. Never construct dynamic sql queries directly, without escaping parameter escaping.


SELECT * FROM Users WHERE username = '" +  userName + "'";

The query with input foo OR 1=1 will select all data from table.

For plain JDBC use:

String query = "SELECT * FROM Users WHERE name = ?";
PreparedStatement statement = connection.prepareStatement(query);
statement.setString(1, userName);

For Hibernate use:

String query = "SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = :userName";
TypedQuery<User> query = em.createQuery(query, User.class);
query.setParameter(userName, userName);

Encode User Data (A3, A10) #

When rendering user-generated content, always encode it properly. This prevents Cross-Site Scripting (XSS).

  • In JSP use JSTL tags Use c:out tag. Attribute escapeXml is “true” by default, so you may omit it:
<c:out value="${variable}"/>
  • When using Spring Framework with JSP view, use Spring’s form tags

    <%@ taglib prefix="form" uri="" %>
            <td>First Name:</td>
            <td><form:input path="firstName" /></td>
            <td>Last Name:</td>
            <td><form:input path="lastName" /></td>
            <td colspan="2">
                <input type="submit" value="Save Changes" />
  • When using Spring Framework with Freemarker and Velocity, use bindEscaped and form macros.

Check Access (A4, A7) #

Always check data and functional access. Each use of a direct object reference from an untrusted source must include an access control check to ensure the user is authorized for the requested object. Spring Security provides the comprehensive methods to implement functional access. Data access (SQL) usually requires correctly constructing of the SQL query.

Use HTTP Headers (A1, A3) #

Use browser headers to prevent XSS and data-injection attacks:

X-Frame-Options: DENY
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
Content-Security-Policy: default-src

Spring-Security provides a set of header filters out of the box:

public class WebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {

Use Content-Security-Policy Header #

Content-Security-Policy is an W3C specification offering the possibility to instruct the client browser from which location and/or which type of resources are allowed to be loaded. To define a loading behavior, the CSP specification use “directive” where a directive defines a loading behavior for a target resource type.

Directives can be specified using HTTP response header (a server may send more than one CSP HTTP header field with a given resource representation and a server may send different CSP header field values with different representations of the same resource or with different resources) or HTML Meta tag, the HTTP headers below are defined by the specs:

  • Content-Security-Policy : Defined by W3C Specs as standard header, used by Chrome version 25 and later, Firefox version 23 and later, Opera version 19 and later.
  • X-Content-Security-Policy : Used by Firefox until version 23, and Internet Explorer version 10 (which partially implements Content Security Policy).
  • X-WebKit-CSP : Used by Chrome until version 25

The supported directives you may find at W3C specification page.

As fallback default you may use default-src directive. It defines loading policy for all resources type in case of a resource type dedicated directive is not defined.

Use Spring-Security CSRF Protection (A8) #

Spring-Security provides a [CSRF] protection out of the box using Synchronizer Token Pattern:

Configure CSRF token support:

public class WebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {

Include _csrf.token hidden field to your forms:

<form action="..." method="post">
<input type="hidden"

Disable XML External Entity (XXE) Processing (A1, A6) #

Processing of

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE request [
include SYSTEM “file=/etc/passwd"

The &include; will be replaced with a real data, like:


To prevent data exposure (A6) and injection (A1) disable some DocumentBuilderFactory features:

DocumentBuilderFactory dbf = new DocumentBuilderFactory();


// Do not include external entities
dbf.setFeature("", false);

// Disallow DTD inlining by setting this feature to true
dbf.setFeature("", true);

Data Protection Coding Practices (A6) #

Without proper server access protection, it is possible to take a whole dump of the process memory with gdb (gdb --pid [pid]). So the developer should make an extra steps for securing data stored in memory.

The main idea is to keep sensitive data in memory as less time as possible.

1. Never hardcode passwords #

Don’t store the passwords/keys in your code. Your code should be immediately available to be open-sourced without disclosing any sensitive data.

2. Avoid storing sensitive date in heap #

Objects are allocated in Heap memory whereas primitives are allocated in stack.

Java uses Stack memory is used for execution of a thread. Stack contain method specific values that are short-lived and references to other objects in the heap that are getting referred from the method. Whenever a method is invoked, a new block is created in the stack memory for the method to hold local primitive values and reference to other objects in the method. As soon as method ends, the block becomes unused and become available for next method. Stack memory size is very less compared to Heap memory. Stack memory is short-lived whereas heap memory lives from the start till the end of application execution.

You can have only values of primitive types (int, not an Integer) in a stack. So, you’ll may need to specially convert the data.

3. Use char arrays instead of Strings where possible and wipe (zero) data after use #

Consider following class:

   class CreditCard {
      String cardNumber;
      String cvv2;

You can’t control how java handles strings containing card number and cvv2. If the particular string value is used frequently, JVM may decide to do a string deduplication:

String de-duplication reduces the memory footprint of String objects on the Java heap by taking advantage of the fact that many String objects are identical. Instead of each String object pointing to its own character array, identical String objects can point to and share the same character array.

Consider using following code to control the values explicitly:

class CreditCard {
    private char[] cardNumber;
    private char[] cvv2;

    public void wipe() {
        if (cardNumber != null) {
            Arrays.fill(cardNumber, 'x');
        cardNumber = null;
        if (cvv2 != null) {
            Arrays.fill(cvv2, 'x');
        cvv2 = null;            

    protected void finalize() throws Throwable {

Now you can wipe the data when you no longer need it. Please note that even if you’ll call a method finalize() explicitly, JVM will call it again. There is no guarantee when finalize will be called by java GC or will it be called at all.
So, it’s better to call wipe() explicitly somewhere in the finally block.

UPD: You may wipe a data in a String using Java Reflection (Peter Verhas’s solution)

public static void wipeString(String password) {
    try {
        final Field stringValue = String.class.getDeclaredField("value");
        final Object val = stringValue.get(secret);
        if (val instanceof byte[]) {
            // in case of compact string in Java 9+
            Arrays.fill((byte[]) val, (byte)0);
        } else {
            Arrays.fill((char[]) val, '\u0000');
    } catch (NoSuchFieldException | IllegalAccessException e) {
        throw new Error("Can't wipe string data");

Following method replaces the content of internal java.lang.String's char array field value with symbol \u0000. You should call this method explicitly.

4. Encrypt data in heap memory #

Even if you keep sensitive data in a Heap, you can make reading and analyzing more difficult by using any encription. The encryption should be fast enough and not necessary be very strong since the risk is low.

One possible solution is to encrypt sensitive data with a key, generated once per JVM run (e.g. function of system time). When you’ll need a decrypted data, use special function to decrypt it. It should be fast enough. For example, you may use Blowfish[^1] (algorithm performance comparison) or even simple XOR cipher:

static final int key = (int)(System.currentTimeMillis() + System.nanoTime());
int b = a ^ key;
int c = b ^ key;
assert (c == a);

Blowfish is fast symmetric cipher but not perfect. In particular, it is vulnerable to birthday attack.

5. Prevent data duplication #

Make your class not-cloneable, non-serializable and non-deserializable. Thus you will protect your data from unexpected / unauthorized duplication.

class CreditCard {

    public final void clone() throws java.lang.CloneNotSupportedException {
		throw new java.lang.CloneNotSupportedException();

    private final void readObject(ObjectInputStream in) throws {
        throw new"Class cannot be deserialized");

    private final void writeObject(ObjectOutputStream out) throws {
            throw new"Object cannot be serialized");

6. Prevent Logging of Sensitive Data #

Secure data may leak to the logs if toString() method is implemented incorrectly. E.g. using ToStringBuilder.reflectionToString(...)

Log files should not contain any sensitive data. It may eventually become accessible to unauthorized persons. You may read about securing your logs with logback in my previous post.

Heapdump Prevention (A5) #

It is possible to take a snapshot of the memory for further analysis and extracting confidential information.

First of all, don’t run your application on Windows. Windows is far more vulnerable to the threats than Linux/Unix.

There are several ways to mitigate that risk by disabling some JVM heapdump features:

  1. Make sure that java attach mechanism is disabled: -XX:+DisableAttachMechanism. Enables the option that disables the mechanism that lets tools attach to the JVM. By default, this option is disabled, meaning that the attach mechanism is enabled and you can use tools such as jcmd, jstack, jmap, and jinfo. See java command line options.

  2. Disable heapdump on OutOfMemoryError: -XX:-HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError. Set heapdump file location to /dev/null to avoid saving heapdump: XX:HeapDumpPath=/dev/null.

    Making a heapdump on OOM is not a good idea on production environment. If heap is big enough (a Gigabites) it could take long time to save heap contents to disk. So I suggest using it for load testing only

Check Your dependencies for known Vulnerabilities (A9) #

  • Check MITRE Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures Database regularly.

  • Integrate OWASP Dependency Check tool into your CI pipeline. Run it daily. There is a maven plugin which can analyze your project dependencies for known vulnerabilities. You may consider adding following profile to your pom.xml:


The list is not comprehensive, comments and suggestions are always welcome.

References #